NICOLAS TOMAS BAUDIN
1754 - 1803
Baudin was the man France held responsible for its failure to colonise Australia. Rumour has it that Napoleon Bonaparte said of him: 'Baudin did well to die, on his return I would have hanged him.' How unfair that would have been for Baudin's expedition was the first great French success after so many dismal failures.
Such were the effects of the poison pens raised against him and poor Baudin was completely unable to defend himself as he had died in Mauritius on the return voyage.
Baudin was at the end of a long list of French explorers who set off for the south land and never returned. La Perouse, d Entrecasteaux, Dufresne and St Allouarn had all gone before him and had all died before making it home to France.
Born a commoner, Baudin first served in the French Royal Navy but after losing a promotion to another officer with 'better breeding', Baudin resigned and joined the merchant marine. It was during this time that he developed an interest in scientific exploration and he was contracted by the Austrian navy which found his work so pleasing that he gained the rank of Captain - something usually reserved for native Austrians.
Baudin was 46 when, in 1800, he captained Le Geographe and sailed from Le Harve with the ship Naturaliste, on a voyage of exploration and science. With him were 22 assorted scientists (Baudin had only requested 8) and his journey had barely begun before he was stopped in his tracks by an English warship.
Luckily for the expedition, a passport of free passage had been issued by the British Admiralty because England and France were once again at war and without the passport he would have been turned back or even imprisoned. As it was the British were now alerted to the date the French expedition had set off and they began to organise their own exploratory party headed by Mathew Flinders.
France had toyed with the idea of establishing a convict settlement in Australia but they had taken too long to make the decision and the English had been in New South Wales for 12 years before Baudin set sail. Baudin's instructions included the following: '...the sole aim of your labours being the perfecting of the sciences, you must observe the most complete neutrality and not give rise to a single doubt as to your exactitude in confining yourself to the object of your mission...' On the surface then it appears as though the French had given up any ideas of colonising the west coast of Australia but Peron had been given secret instructions to look for likely areas to settle and to report on the existing British settlements.
On arrival at Teneriffe, Baudin was unable to organise enough supplies to suit the refined requirements of the passengers and this was to ruffle feathers and cause no end of bad feeling on board.
Many of the scientists aboard were the surviving sons of French aristocrats (those that survived the revolution that is) and they held the 'low born' Captain in very low regard. The lack of supplies and ship board conditions they were unused to caused continual friction and in the end Baudin assembled the scientists and ship's officers to 'lay down the law' about behaviour on board ship. He threatened to leave any offenders at the next port but his warning seemed to have little effect.
On arrival at Mauritius (known as Ile de France at the time) Baudin's expedition was not met with the welcome he expected. He was denied access to Government stores and without the help of the Danish Consul Pelgrom, he may not have been able to re-supply at all. It appeared as though the French authorities on Mauritius did everything they could to prevent the expedition from leaving. Despite his best efforts Baudin was 15 men short when he finally did manage to get away (1) - not that he missed some of the scientists who had deserted.
Baudin had arrived off the West Australian coast 7 months after leaving France and before Flinders had even left England. On reaching Cape Leeuwin, Baudin sailed north and discovered and named Geographe Bay. It was while the ships were anchored here that a 19 year old seaman named Timothee Vasse was lost in the surf in a raging storm and it was in his memory that the Vasse River was named.
During the storm the ships became separated and after searching for some time Baudin gave up and headed north for the Swan River. Before leaving France, Baudin had been given specific instructions to head first to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) but as he was running three months behind schedule he had decided to head north away from the southern winter gales. Baudin was at this time completely unaware that Mathew Flinders was following in his footsteps.
Not finding the Naturaliste at the pre-determined rendezvous, Baudin sailed further north to Shark Bay. While at anchor a party went ashore to explore and Peron (who had already been lost several times previously) managed to lose himself again and held up the party returning to the ship.
With still no sign of the second ship, the Geographe was running short of provisions and was forced to make for Timor to re-supply. While waiting here for the Naturaliste to arrive, many of the crew (including Baudin) were struck down with dysentery and some fatalities occurred. Finally on the 21st of September the Naturaliste put in an appearance. Trouble was to follow as Baudin was forced to imprison an insubordinate officer and talk of mutiny spread.
After 12 weeks in Timor the expedition was once again back on track with Baudin now keen to fulfil his orders to sail to Tasmania. Instead of heading east (as we might expect) Baudin re-traced his route along the west coast before heading east toward Tasmania. Unknown to him the English expedition, led by Mathew Flinders, was anchored only a matter of 140 miles away when they passed King George Sound on Christmas Eve 1801. By this time the French expedition had suffered 87 deaths while the English expedition was in full health.
On the way west he met Flinders at Encounter Bay (Flinders being now on his way east). The two explorers swapped charts but Baudin was later to belittle the work done by both Vancouver and Flinders.
Baudin made his way to Port Jackson (after being invited to winter there by Mathew Flinders) and he and his crew were made very welcome over the next 5 months. Before leaving Baudin was able to purchase a third ship (Casuarina) which he would need as the Naturaliste sailed home to France taking a large collection of animals and plants with her.
Louis de Freycinet, although not the most senior available ranking officer, was given command of the Casuarina and he was less than complimentary about the ship, he wrote in his journal on the 23rd of September 1801: 'The Casuarina is a 30 ton schooner, very badly constructed and worse fitted out. It is too short for its masts. It takes in five inches of water a day. We have to continually pump, it is a very poor seaboat.'
Baudin had been so well treated by Governor King during his stay that he even sent a letter to the Governor of Mauritius asking him to extend the same courtesy to Mathew Flinders if he should happen to stop there.
For some reason Baudin saw fit to take with him a female convict (Mary Beckworth) and the fact that she spent her voyage sleeping in the Captain's cabin led to no end of speculation. She was apparently rather lax with her morals and spent time with more than just Baudin. Her presence on board was a constant source of trouble.
Along with Mary Beckworth, 9 other convicts had managed to get on to the French ships but these were stowaways and they were put off at King Island. Even so 3 of these managed to get back on board before the ships left port.
As the ships were getting ready to leave, the Cumberland arrived from Port Jackson with a letter from Governor King to Baudin. The contents were somewhat surprising considering the fact that the two men had become friends but King informed Baudin that no French settlement would be tolerated on British territory.
Baudin decided he had to reply to
in both an
and as Governor King's friend in a
As he sailed west, Baudin's health began
to deteriorate as he had contracted tuberculosis. The expedition stopped at King
George Sound and when their land explorations were complete the Geographe and
Casuarina sailed north west where they became separated only to meet again off Rottnest Island.
Baudin had several on-going feuds with the
scientists aboard and the focus of his irritation seemed to be Peron who was
continually getting lost during on
As he sailed west, Baudin's health began to deteriorate as he had contracted tuberculosis. The expedition stopped at King George Sound and when their land explorations were complete the Geographe and Casuarina sailed north west where they became separated only to meet again off Rottnest Island.
Baudin had several on-going feuds with the scientists aboard and the focus of his irritation seemed to be Peron who was continually getting lost during on-shore excursions.
4 weeks after Flinders had called in at Timor and had picked up a supply of contaminated water, Baudin again called in. He learned that the Investigator was in poor shape and surmised correctly, that Flinders would not be able to chart the north west coast. Here at last was his chance to make some discoveries of his own.
Battling the monsoon winds, Baudin sailed west but Timor was once again taking its toll on the crew and scientists. Baudin found that all his closest allies and friends were dying around him. With his own health deteriorating and the live animal specimens also in danger, the decision was made (July 7th 1803) to head home to France.
Baudin got only as far as Mauritius before his health failed and he succumbed to TB on the 16th of September 1803. His mission had largely been a success. A total of over 200,000 specimens had been collected and much of the unknown coast of Australia had been charted. How is it then that Baudin's name was to become one of the most despised in France and he was all but forgotten by history'
On the 16th of December 1803 the Geographe sailed for France. As she left the north end of the island a small ship arrived off the south end. Mathew Flinders had arrived.
With Baudin dead and unable to defend himself, the knives came out and even those who had deserted the expedition on the outward journey came out against their commander. Peron was the loudest and most vindictive of all Baudin's detractors as he tried to manoeuvre his way into writing the account of the expedition. Eventually he succeeded and between them Peron and Freycinet started to make wholesale changes to the accounts and maps of the expedition.
By the time they had finished, their names appeared 10 times each on the maps and Baudin was left one small insignificant island in the huge Freycinet Estuary. Baudin's magnificent collection of specimens was broken up, sold, given away, mixed up and generally ignored. Baudin's name had been irrevocably damaged and he was forgotten by history.
Peron went on to write the first volume of the journey's record but he too succumbed to tuberculosis (poetic justice perhaps') and Freycinet completed volumes 2 and 3.
De Freycinet was to go on to explore more of the Australian coast as he managed to remain in favour with the authorities once Napoleon Bonaparte had been removed.
Despite the lack of acclaim in his own country, Baudin's expedition left no less than 240 surviving French names on the west coast of Australia and his own name was eventually to grace 8 different features. In France he is still virtually unknown and even his grave has been lost.